1 develops framework for Earth's inaccessible interior on Mon Oct 31, 2011 7:46 am
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new model of inner Earth constructed by Arizona State University
researchers pulls past information and hypotheses into a coherent story
to clarify mantle motion. “The past maybe two or three years there have
been a lot of papers in Science and Nature about the deep mantle from
seismologists and mineral physicists and it’s getting really confusing
because there are contradictions amongst the different papers,” says Ed
Garnero, seismologist and an associate professor in Arizona State
University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration.
“But we’ve discovered that there is a single framework that is compatible with all these different findings,” he adds.
Garnero partnered with geodynamicist and assistant professor Allen
McNamara, also in the School of Earth and Space Exploration in ASU’s
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, to synthesize the information for
their paper to be published in the May 2 issue of Science.
“Our goal was to bring the latest seismological and dynamical
results together to put some constraints on the different hypotheses we
have for the mantle. If you Google ‘mantle’ you’ll see 20 different
versions of what people are teaching,” explains McNamara.
According to the ASU scientists, all this recent research of the
past few years fits into a single story. But what is that story" Is it
a complicated and exceedingly idiosyncratic story or is it a
straightforward simple framework"
“In my opinion,” explains Garnero, “it’s simple. It doesn’t really
appeal to anything new; it just shows how all those things can fit
The pair paints a story for a chemically complex inner earth, a
model that sharply contrasts the heavily relied upon paradigm of the
past few decades that the mantle is all one thing and well mixed. The
original model was composed of simple concentric spheres representing
the core, mantle and crust – but the inner Earth isn’t that simple.
What lies beneath
Earth is made up of several layers. Its skin, the crust, extends to
a depth of about 40 kilometers (25 miles). Below the crust is the
mantle area, which continues to roughly halfway to the center of Earth.
The mantle is the thick layer of silicate rock surrounding the dense,
iron-nickel core, and it is subdivided into the upper and lower mantle,
extending to a depth of about 2,900 km (1,800 miles). The outer core is
beneath that and extends to 5,150 km (3,200 mi) and the inner core to
about 6,400 km (4,000 mi).
The inner Earth is not a static storage space of the geologic
history of our planet – it is continuously churning and changing. How a
mantle convects and how the plates move is very different depending on
whether the mantle is isochemical (chemically homogenous made entirely
of only one kind of material) or heterogeneous, composed of different
kinds of compounds.
Garnero and McNamara’s framework is based upon the assumption that
the Earth’s mantle is not isochemical. Garnero says new data supports a
mantle that consists of more than one type of material.
“Imagine a pot of water boiling. That would be all one kind of
composition. Now dump a jar of honey into that pot of water. The honey
would be convecting on its own inside the water and that’s a much more
complicated system,” McNamara explains.
Observations, modeling and predictions have shown that the deepest
mantle is complex and significantly more anomalous than the rest of the
lower mantle. To understand this region, seismologists analyze
tomographic images constructed from seismic wave readings. For 25 years
they have been detecting differences in the speeds of waves that go
through the mantle.
This difference in wave speeds provides an “intangible map” of the
major boundaries inside the mantle – where hot areas are, where cold
areas are, where there are regions that might be a different
composition, etc. The areas with sluggish wave speeds seem to be
bounded rather abruptly by areas with wave speeds that are not sluggish
or delayed. An abrupt change in wave speed means that something inside
the mantle has changed.
If the mantle is all the same material, then researchers shouldn’t
be observing the boundary between hot and cold in the mantle as a super
sharp edge and the temperature anomalies should also be more spread
out. The abrupt change in velocity was noticeable, yet they didn’t know
what caused it.
Garnero and McNamara believe that the key aspect to this story is
the existence of thermo-chemical piles. On each side of the Earth there
are two big, chemically distinct, dense “piles” of material that are
hundreds of kilometers thick – one beneath the Pacific and the other
below the Atlantic and Africa. These piles are two nearly antipodal
large low shear velocity provinces situated at the base of Earth’s
“You can picture these piles like peanut butter. It is solid rock
but rock under very high pressures and temperatures become soft like
peanut butter so any stresses will cause it to flow,” says McNamara.
Recently mineral physicists discovered that under high pressure the
atoms in the rocks go through a phase transition, rearranging
themselves into a tighter configuration.
In these thermo-chemical piles the layering is consistent with a new
high pressure phase of the most abundant lower mantle mineral called
post-perovskite, a material that exists specifically under high
pressures that cause new arrangements of atoms to be formed.
Perovskite is a specific arrangement of silicon and magnesium and iron atoms.
“At a depth a few hundred kilometers above the core, the mineral
physicists tell us that the rocks’ atoms can go into this new structure
and it should happen abruptly and that’s consistent with the velocity
discontinuities that the seismologists have been seeing for decades,”
These thick piles play a key role in the convection currents.
Ultra-low velocity zones live closest to the edges of the piles because
that’s the hottest regions of the mantle due to the currents that go
against the pile walls as they bring the heat up from the core. Off
their edges exist instability upwellings that turn out to be the plumes
that feed hot spots such as Hawaii, Iceland and the Galapagos.
“We observe the motions of plate tectonics very well, but we can’t
fully understand how the mantle is causing these motions until we
better understand how the mantle itself is convecting,” says McNamara.
“The piles dictate how the convective cycles happen, how the currents
circulate. If you don’t have piles then convection will be completely